Even as a child, James was described by teachers and his parents as a happy optimist. As the story goes, one day his parents decided to play a joke on him and test his attitude by requiring him to spend an afternoon cleaning deserted stables at what had been a local racetrack.
Returning after two hours, James' parents observed him singing while happily shoveling manure. Astounded, they walked closer, only to hear him saying to himself over and over, "There has to be a pony in here somewhere."
James did naturally what researchers are increasingly discovering: optimistic thinking skills are a powerful antidote to anger partly because the optimist has better resistance to depression when bad events strike, better performance at work, better physical health, and better relationships. Who couldn't admire and love a person with such a great attitude?
But what if you are not naturally optimistic? How can you become an optimist if you now insist on seeing the glass as half-empty instead of half-full?
The good news is that, according to psychologist Dr. Martin Seligman, optimism is a learned mental skill. As a past president of the American Psychological Association, he has plenty of research to back up his theory.
There are four ways to argue with yourself.
At its core, optimism is a style of interpreting events that occur in your world - it is your personal theory or explanation of why both good things and bad things happen to you.
While everyone experiences both set-backs and victories in the normal course of life, optimists - in contrast to pessimists - have a very distinct style of explaining things to themselves.
Said another way, it is your belief about what happens to you that determines your reaction more than the event itself. The knack of disputing your beliefs is a thought-skill, the mastery of which will morph you into the optimistic style of thinking. There are four ways to do this:
1) Look at the evidence.
According to Dr. Seligman, the most convincing way of disputing a negative belief is to show it is factually incorrect. Most of the time you will have "reality" on your side. Your role is that of a detective as you ask, "What is the evidence for my belief?"
For example, is it really true that you never succeed in anything? (Very doubtful. Everybody succeeds some of the time.) That you are the worse parent you know? (Can you remember any success you had as a parent?) That you are an incurable glutton? (Can you sometimes resist food?) That you are incredibly selfish? (How many times have you been unselfish?)
Using this skill of looking at the evidence, you can defeat pessimism with more accurate perception and recall of what is really true.
2) Consider alternative causes.
Most events in the world have more than one cause. Pessimists latch onto the most insidious; optimists tend more to give themselves a break.
For example, a marital breakup usually has many causes which probably contributed to its downfall. You can blame yourself. You can blame your partner. A more optimistic interpretation is that neither partner failed as an individual; it was the relationship (the combination) that failed.
3) Put events into perspective.
If the facts are not on your side and you cannot honestly see other causes to a negative event, you will need to look at the implications of your beliefs to become an optimistic thinker.
Is the event really as catastrophic as you may be making it in your mind? (Hint: few things are). Usually, the implications or long-term effects of your misfortune aren't as awful or devastating as you may be seeing them.
4) Is your belief useful?
Even though a belief may, in fact, be true, it may not be useful. Some beliefs cause more grief than they are worth. You may tell yourself you are a failure, for instance. This belief will likely cause you to stop trying.
Instead, substitute a more useful belief like "Just because I failed once doesn't make me a failure." Then behave accordingly with your new belief.
By learning to use optimism, you can manage anger and improve your health. These four steps will help you overcome your negative tendencies and have a more optimistic view of life.
Dr. Tony Fiore is a Southern California licensed psychologist, and anger management trainer. His company, The Anger Coach, provides anger and stress management programs, training and products to individuals, couples, and the workplace. Sign up for his free monthly newsletter "Taming The Anger Bee" at www.angercoach.com and receive two bonus reports.© 2004 Dr. Tony Fiore
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